He had great faith in the innate instinct of freedom and believed any interference with this instinct to be harmful. The differences between society and living organisms are well rehearsed, but it is the ability to handle the problems of social and the limits beyond which the plasticity of society cannot go, which both Spencer and Durkheim were unable to explain. Two of the most important shared values in industrial societies include a belief in the work ethic and a belief in meritocracy the idea that people are rewarded on the basis of their ability and effort , both of which are taught through education. Similarly, analyzing the function of a social item means showing the part it plays in the continued existence and health of a society. The parts of both possess a certain independence and continuity. Food and shelter must be provided to meet the physical needs of members.
Parsons argued these were both vital to modern society because a work ethic ensures people value working rather than lazing about and meritocracy means that those people who end up in lower paid jobs accept inequality in society because they believe they at least had a fair chance to do better in life. Standing dedicated military forces are an example of mechanical solidarity. Like an organism society is subject to the same process of gradual growth or development from a simple to complex state. Religion further is a structure within functionalism which aids in influencing individuals lives. For Durkheim the key feature of religion was not a belief in gods, spirits or the supernatural.
He claimed society needs adaptation to meet the material needs of society. In order to survive, social systems must have some degree of control over their environment. Even if the analogies were to fit perfectly, it creates an extra step that needs to be debated and assessed in an attempt to simplify, it only makes the understanding more complex since there would have to be an equally complete of biology as well as society. Collective worship is regarded as particularly important for the integration of society since it enables members to express. Different groups and individuals in society are important because they perform certain functions which meet society's needs. The organs of alimentation are vital in an organism so are in the society.
Question: Discuss the structural ist functionalist perspective in sociology. His ideas became popular because they served the need of his time the desire for unifying knowledge and the need to explain in a scientific manner the liassez faire principle. The un-acknowledgment of these groups could leave sociologists lacking important information about the functions of society which may be seen as a weakness. According to Parsons a social system has four needs which must be met for continued survival — These are adaptation, goal attainment, integration and latency. Assess the strengths and weaknesses of the functionalist approach to society 33 marks Functionalism is seen as a macro-scale approach to society; it sees society as a whole rather than looking at parts of it. Unlike the living organisms, the State has no process of birth, growth, decay and death.
Society shapes the individual and not the individual that shapes society. The Organic Analogy — we should see society as a system Talcott Parsons saw society as working like a human body, arguing that institutions in society were like organs in the body — each performing specific functions which were necessary to the maintenance of the whole. The amount of water which is squeezed into the funnel and collected, is a good concrete way to visualize the heat of reaction. If we regard the State as consisting of the individuals, then each one of them is himself an organism. Students learn to look for molecules that are potential nucleophiles, as well as molecules that have a good leaving group or a site that can be easily turned into one.
It seems to me that I would be more of a functionalist rather than a conflict theorist. Some of the functions of family, for example, have changed. Also, as functionalism is a consensus theory where all individuals within a particular society share the same or similar norms and values and sees society as being fair and just; however, it fails to acknowledge that there are inequalities within society, these inequalities could be present amounts social class,. Talcott Parsons viewed society as a system. They ultimately created social solidarity that was orderly and highly organic.
English philosopher and sociologist Herbert Spencer 1820- 1903 drew on Comte's ideas and argued that, just as the world of nature was subject to biological evolution, so societies were subject to social evolution. After all, a novel is a depiction of an idealized in the sense of an idea of a society. However, the Giver disregarded social groupings such as religion within a society that were defining characteristics for Durkheim. But Spencer was the first to give to that analogy the value of scientific theory. Most organic chemistry textbooks help students develop reasoning-by-analogy skills through the use of functional groups as an organizational framework.
Parsons identifies three similarities; System, System Needs and Functions. It documents the building's history and discusses its design in the context of late-nineteenth-century theoretical debate on housing and architecture. For example if an individual loses its hand, it is not necessary that this may result in his death. Without this, individuals would pursue their own selfish desires and society would disintegrate. An organismic analogy would be the way human society functions in family units, sometimes one parent is a caregiver sometimes the other is, sometimes one child may look after another and fulfill a parental role.